The Career Preparation Process Model

Career development is the result of a person being influenced by a number of different factors. Family and parents, social practices, religious persuasion, economic climate, political orientations... all come together to create a certain environment within which attitudes and opinions are formed about different careers. 'Science offers the best career options', is an example of such attitudes.

These opinions push and pull the career chooser toward and away from career families. Career psychologists use the term 'social cognitive environment' to describe the milieu within which ideas about careers emerge.

The Jiva approach to career counselling is based on the Career Preparation Process Model developed by Arulmani & Nag (2004) and described in detail in their book: Career Counselling: A Handbook (Tata McGraw Hill, 2004). The model rests on crucial understanding that a sensitive career counsellor would strive to understand the social cognitive environment from which the client comes.

The key concepts of the Career Preparation Process Model are:

  • career preparation is a process that occurs within a particular social-cognitive environment
  • socio-economic status variables and attitudes toward career development (career beliefs) interact with each other and influence the manner in which a person prepares for a career (career preparation self-efficacy)
  • These factors in turn influence the manner in which choice is exercised. Some groups imbibe career beliefs that predispose them toward unplanned entry into the world of work. Others look at career development differently and move toward further education.

This process of career preparation has the final outcome of insecure or fruitful employment in the future, according to how personal potentials and career satisfaction are actualised.

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